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APA Style Guide, 7th Edition: Book with Personal Author(s)

The most current edition of APA style guide

Formatting Your References

Once you type your references on the reference page, you will need to put in a hanging indent and double-space the entire reference list. In Microsoft Word, highlight the references from A to Z, then find the paragraph function in the Word ribbon. Select Hanging under Indentation and Double under spacing. See the Formatting your References tab for instructions on doing this on a Mac or in Google Docs.


Abbas, D. D. F. (2020). Manipulating of audio-visual aids in the educational processes in Al-Hilla University College. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(3), 1248-1263.

The citation above may not indicate a hanging indent depending on the device you are using to view it.  The second and all subsequent lines of APA formatted references use a hanging indent.

Material Type           In-text Citation              Reference                                                        

General Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (YEAR). Title of the book. Publishing Company.

Book with 1 author         (MacDonald, 2007).

MacDonald, R.G. (2007). Biochemistry. McGraw Hill.

Book with 2 authors       (McKee & McKee, 2009).                                       

McKee, T. & McKee, J.R. (2009). Business ethics: The moral basis of commerce (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Book with 3 or more authors

All citations:
(James et al., 2005).

James, C., Cameron, P. D., Smith, Y. N., Hawthorne, H., & Cushing, S., M. (2005). The sociological theory of people and places. Oxford University Press.
Book with up to 20 authors        

All citations:

(Bowsher et al., 2008).

Bowsher, C., Steer, M., Tobin, A, Cornelius, D. P., Rayburn, M., Auberry, K., Johnson, S., Neely-Sardon, A., Williams, B., Tignor, M., Carlson, A., Miranda, C., Brady, K., Finn, C., Cooper, T., Anderson, A., Collado, A., Saenz, D. A., Jimmerson, S. M. & Mantauk, B. B. (2008). Plant biochemistry. Garland Science.

List all the authors' last names in the end references for up to 20 authors.

Book with 21 or more authors (Ford et al., 2009).

Ford, M. N., Fielding, D., Reed, P. L., Harmon, M., Ulrich, B. T., Wheeler, K., Tillman, B., DeSoto, P., Willems, B., Owens, G., Kirk, J. H., Derry, N., Ford, J. J., Smith, Z., Brice, D., Granger, H., Potter, H., Weasley, R.,...Peel, J. (2009). Who constructs the mind? Coleman Books.

When you have more than 20 authors list the first 19 authors followed by ... and then put the last author's last name.

Electronic book (Internet, available to everyone) (Gossett, 1963)

Gossett, T.F. (1963). Race: The history of an idea in America. Retrieved from